109: Parenting

Kathleen Holloway; Jing Zhang; Jennifer Young; Shu Su; Alyssa McElwain; Aran Garnett-Deakin; Esra Sahin; Sarai Coba-Rodriguez

10:00 AM
11:15 AM
Session #
Session Type
Interactive Paper Session
Session Focus
  • Practice
Organized By
  • Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Families
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About the Session

Concurrent Sessions 1 - (NBCC CE Credit: #1 hr and Conference Attendance Credit: #1 hr)

109-01: African American Parents' Race-Related Stressors, Racial Identity, and Racial Socialization Messages
Kathleen Holloway

African American parents' race-related stressors, racial identity, and racial socialization messages. The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of racial identity sub-scales, including racial centrality, private regard, and public regard, on the relation between race-related stressors (i.e., personal, vicarious, and anticipated racial discrimination) and racial socialization messages (i.e., cultural socialization and preparation for bias). Study participants consisted of 576 African American mothers and fathers, who lived in the United States, and had one child between ages 11 and 18. The findings highlighted that parents' experiences of personal, vicarious, or anticipated racial discrimination have different relations with their racial socialization messages. Additionally, it highlights the ordinary magic that transpires within Black families as racial identity influences the type of racial-ethnic socialization messages parents' give their children in response to race-related stressors.

-- To utilize the Sociohistorical Integrative Model for the Study of Stress in Black Families to examine strength-based coping in African American families
(2) To examine different types of race-related stressors (i.e., personal, vicarious, and anticipated racial discrimination) experienced by African American families
(3) To examine the relations among parent' racial identity, race-related, and their racial socialization messages.

Subject Codes: family processes, discrimination, socialization
Population Codes: African Americans, biological parent
Method and Approach Codes: strength-based, path analysis

109-02: Acculturative Stress, Emotion Regulation, Parent-Child Relationships and Rule-Breaking Behaviors Among Latino Youth From Farmworker Communities
Jing Zhang, Melinda Gonzales-Backen

Research shows that Latinx youth exhibit disproportionally higher rates of internalizing and externalizing behaviors compared to their non-Hispanic White peers. Stressors associated with experiences as ethnic minorities in the U.S. are identified as one of the factors contributing to the elevated internalizing symptoms among Latinx youth. Yet less is known about the association between cultural and minority stress (e.g., acculturative stress and discrimination) and externalizing behaviors (Ponting et al., 2018). In the current study, we tested a moderated mediation model to examine the association between acculturative stress, parent-child relationship, and youth internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

-- To examine the relationship between internalizing and externalizing behaviors of a group of Latinx youth from the farm worker communities.
-- To examine multiple contextual factors (e.g., acculturative stress and parent-child relationship) and individual traits (e.g., emotion regulation) in understanding internalizing and externalizing behaviors among Latinx youth.
-- To implicate culturally informed interventions for behavior problems among Latinx youth.

Subject Codes: risky behaviors, parent-child relationships, race
Population Codes: adolescence, Hispanic/Latina/o/x, migrant
Method and Approach Codes: mediation/indirect effects models

109-03: "Race Was Something We Didn't Talk About": Racial Socialization in Asian American Families
Jennifer Young, HaeDong Kim, Laura Golojuch

Asian Americans hold a complex racial position in the U.S. Wrongfully considered "honorary Whites," unaffected by racial discrimination, they are simultaneously considered foreigners in their homeland. It is unclear how Asian American young adults participate in conversations regarding socio-racial injustices experienced by racial minority groups. We explored Asian American families' discussions about race/ethnicity in the context of promoting awareness of discrimination, community violence, and the historical roots of racism. Utilizing a phenomenological approach, we interviewed 12 Asian American young adults. We found that Asian American young adults desire to participate in current racial dialogue but lacked family modeling and guidance regarding racial conversations. They received conflicting messages about discrimination and reported frustration with lack of representation in the media. In this time of increased racial tension, Asian American young adults must racial messaging from families, schools, and the media. Despite these challenges, participants showed active engagement in racial meaning making.

-- To define racial and ethnic socialization in Asian American families, and describe the differences between the two processes.
-- To illustrate the racial identity challenges associated with being a Asian American young adult.
-- To describe racial socialization practices in Asian American families.

Subject Codes: race, socialization, immigration
Population Codes: Asian/Pacific Islander, emerging/young adulthood, intergenerational
Method and Approach Codes: phenomenology

109-04: A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Parenting Practices on Emerging Adult Psychological Outcomes
Shu Su, Alyssa McElwain, Xi Lin

Parenting practices during emerging adulthood can impact individual well-being. Autonomy-related parenting practices have particularly beneficial/detrimental impacts. The current study examined the impact of parental support, involvement, helicopter parenting, and psychological control on adults' well-being. Additionally, these associations were compared between samples of American and Chinese emerging adults (N = 1157). Results indicate that parental support has beneficial effects on emerging adults' well-being (indicated by stress, loneliness, and mental well-being), whereas helicopter parenting and psychological control have detrimental impacts within both cultures. Additionally, even though a mean level difference was found in autonomy-related parenting practices across samples, its impact on well-being was equally significant.

-- To describe the associations between several parenting practices and emerging adult well-being
-- To examine cross-cultural differences in autonomy-supportive and autonomy-limiting parenting practices.
-- To discuss implications of this research for parent education

Subject Codes: parenting, diversity, well-being
Population Codes: emerging/young adulthood, undergraduate students, cross-cultural
Method and Approach Codes: quantitative methodology

109-05: Violence, Trauma, and Transition to Fatherhood: Examining How Community Violence Informs Fathering for Young Black Men
Aran Garnett-Deakin, Jocelyn Smith Lee, Rachel Fuqua

Black males are disproportionately likely to experience community violence. Few studies examine these experiences within the family context, especially through intersections of race, class, and masculinity. This study examines how exposures to violence influences life outlooks and fathering behaviors of economically disadvantaged young Black men. Participants were drawn from Wave 2 of a longitudinal qualitative dataset examining how exposures to violence shape the health, well-being, and transition to adulthood for Black males in Baltimore. Interviews were conducted with 40% of the original sample (n=16), 8 of whom were fathers and 8 who experienced an injury resulting from community violence, to examine how participants' experiences of loss and grief changed. Results suggest that fathers are motivated to avoid violence and improve opportunities for their children.

-- To examine the impact of traumatic loss and violence on the transition to fatherhood for young Black men.
-- To analyze how young Black fathers communicate with their children about loss and violence.
-- To examine the differences and similarities in life outlooks and motivation for fathers and non-fathers.

Subject Codes: community violence, fatherhood, grief/loss
Population Codes: African Americans, low income, communities, general
Method and Approach Codes: grounded theory, lifespan development, qualitative methodology

109-06: Parental Involvement Among First- and Second-Generation Latin Immigrants to the United States
Esra Sahin, Qiujie Gong, Karen Kramer

Immigration to a new country often involves significant changes in parenting norms and behaviors. The authors take an acculturation lens to explore parental involvement among different generations of Latin-American immigrant families. It compares the quantity and type of parental involvement of first- and second-generation Latin-American immigrants to that of third-generation Americans, while examining whether differences exist between mothers and fathers. Data from the 2003-2013 American Time Use Survey (13,507 fathers and 15,550 mothers) are used for our analysis, which finds differences between parenting behaviors of first-generation Latina-American immigrants and third-generation American mothers. Second-generation Latina-American mothers were also found to be significantly different from third-generation Americans in almost every type of parental involvement, but Latino-American fathers were similar to third-generation American fathers in quantity and type of parental involvement.

-- To analyze parental involvement among immigrants from a family perspective.
-- To evaluate if immigration to the US changes parental involvement patterns of LatinX parents.
-- To understand how family practitioners can approach parental involvement in immigrant populations.

Subject Codes: immigration
Population Codes: Hispanic/Latina/o/x
Method and Approach Codes: regression: linear (simple, multiple, hierarchical)

Facilitator: Sarai Coba-Rodriguez

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