121: The Effects of Trauma, Abuse, Neglect, and Adverse Childhood Experiences
Alice C. Long
- Education & Enrichment
- Families & Health
- Family Policy
- Research & Theory
About the Session
Interactive Poster Sessions have a NEW LIVE INTERACTIVE approach this year to allow for more engagement between presenters and attendees. Posters listed below are included in this session. Each poster presenter will have 3 minutes to present an overview of their poster at the beginning of this session. Following all individual poster overviews, each poster presenter will move to a breakout room where attendees can have live discussions with the presenters (approximately 45 minutes). Attendees can move in and out of the breakout rooms to talk with presenters.
Posters will be available to view online beginning November 1.
Facilitator/Presider: Alice C. Long
121-01 FH: Healing From Trauma: The Psychotherapeutic Properties of Martial Arts
Courtney Rago, Sandra Espinoza
Healing from trauma is a complex process that requires an individualized approach and a focus on both the mind and body (van der Kolk, 2015). Research has recently begun to explore how including movement such as yoga, dance, and martial arts can increase the mind-body connection, self-esteem, and empowerment, while decreasing hyper and hypoarousal, flashbacks, and dissociation (Bernstein, 2019;David et al., 2006;Duros & Crowley, 2014; van der Kolk, 2015). Researchers have found training in martial arts improves mindfulness, self-esteem, self-regulation, anxiety, depression, and sleep, which are often affected by trauma (Greco, Cataldi, et al., 2019; Lakes & Hoyt, 2004). The presentation will explore the psychotherapeutic effects of martial arts and how body-focused interventions can be applied to support well-being and healing. Furthermore, the presentation will discuss preliminary outcomes from a phenomenological pilot study, examine existing literature, and aid clinicians in understanding the importance of incorporating body-focused interventions with trauma survivors.
- To increase knowledge of how trauma affects psychological well-being and manifests itself in physical form.
- To recognize and understand the importance of the connection between body and mind incorporating body-focused interventions in the process of healing from traumatic experiences.
- To conceptualize treatment by integrating movement and body-focused therapies and body-focused interventions that can help facilitate healing from trauma.
Subject Codes: trauma, healing, health
Population Codes: communities, general, inclusive of adults, sexual orientation inclusive
Method and Approach Codes: phenomenology, systematic literature review, empowerment
121-02 RT: Family Concepts in Trauma Research, Where Art Thou? A Literature Review and Discussion About Family Concepts in the Trauma Literature
Bill Garris, Audrey Besch, Lisa Dunkley
Our understanding of trauma can be strengthened by family science. A recent review of the terms “trauma” and “family systems” and “theory” since 2015 identified 21 studies. Of those articles that explicitly described theory, eight clearly drew upon family theories, notably attachment and Bowenian models. Most often the connection of trauma to systemic models is more incidental. Trauma is an important frame for understanding current mental health issues, and relational models are central to our ability to cultivate hope, happiness, and health. This Interactive Workshop discusses principal tenets from attachment, bioecological, Bowenian, and family resilience frameworks, and connects each approach’s core concepts to trauma and its treatment. Participants will be encouraged to bring their knowledge of theories and participate in a co-creation of knowledge at the intersection of trauma and systems thinking. This session will contribute to the development of family science as it relates to trauma.
- To review the existing trauma scholarship as it relates to family theory
- To analyze trauma research in light of core concepts from family science, bringing attention to important contributions from family science that have not yet been applied to trauma research.
- To support the explicit development and integration of family science concepts in the study of trauma through discussion.
Subject Codes: trauma, family processes, family functioning
Population Codes: Nationally representative, inclusive of minor children, multi-parent or caregivers family (more than two)
Method and Approach Codes: systematic literature review, Family Science, research, general
121-03 RT: Relational and Mental Health Outcomes of Trauma and Disaster: The Mediating Role of Grit
Alyssa J. Banford Witting, Lacey Bagley
Current literature focusing on those who experience disasters, includes calls for more studies with populations who have regular exposure to extreme weather events. The current study will report on a secondary data analysis with a sample of 240 heterosexual couples living in or near coastal regions in the southeast US, who were at risk of experiencing disaster events during the 2019 hurricane season (June-December). A large body of disaster research focuses on individual mental health outcomes and the current study is designed to add relational focus to both mental health and relationship outcome variables by using data from couples. The dyadic data will be used to assess outcomes of post-traumatic stress symptoms and attachment behaviors in couples as predicted by disaster-related losses, accounting for previous trauma exposure. The potential intermediary role of grit will also be examined.
- Participants will be able to identify the potential value of accessibility, responsiveness and engagement in couple relationships exposed to trauma.
- Participants will recognize the currently underdeveloped nature of the study of couples in mass trauma situations using dyadic data.
- Participants will understand actor and partner associations between the predictors of disaster-related loss (accounting for prior trauma) and the outcomes of attachment behaviors and posttraumatic stress. Finally, participants will be able to explain the potential intermediary role of grit.
Subject Codes: disasters, trauma, adversity
Population Codes: couples/coupled, inclusive of adults,
Method and Approach Codes: actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), ,
121-04 FH: The Mediating Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences Between Inequality and Children's General Health
Background: Social inequalities and adverse childhood experiences both predict poor health outcomes. This study aims to address how social inequalities affect the health outcomes of children, mediated by ACEs. Method:Data from the 2017 National Survey of Children’s Health were used in two structural equation models. Model A examined the five measures of inequality on health outcomes, with ACEs' count as a mediator. Model B examined the five measures of inequality on health outcomes using each individual ACE measure as mediators. Results:Inequality measures significantly predicted ACEs and lower health outcomes. Many measures of inequality predicted specific ACEs. Two specific ACEs (domestic violence and drug/alcohol abuse) did not predict excellent health. Discussion:The results suggest the need to examine specific ACEs. Additionally, to address health outcomes, communities should pay attention to social inequalities as well as ACEs.
- To better understand the role individual ACEs play in predicting health outcomes
- To determine how ACEs mediate the established relationship between social inequalities and poor health outcomes in children
- To analyze the difference between the cumulative vs singular effects of ACEs.
Subject Codes: health, trauma, inequalities
Population Codes: inclusive of minor children, Nationally representative, U.S.
Method and Approach Codes: structural equation modeling (SEM), secondary data analysis,
121-05 FH: The Long-Term Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Positive Childhood Experiences on Depression and Anxiety in Adolescence
Dan Wang, Qingyu Jiang, Jeong-Kyun Choi
Despite the importance of childhood experience, few studies have investigated the effects of both positive and negative early experiences on children’s later mental health. Using logistic regression, this study compared the longitudinal effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and positive childhood experiences at home, school, and neighborhood on adolescent depression and anxiety. We analyzed six waves of longitudinal data that include 3,426 children at their birth, ages one, three, five, nine, and fifteen. Findings revealed that two dimensions of ACEs impact children’s mental health: childhood maltreatment exposures increased the risks for later anxiety; family dysfunction increased the risks for both later depression and anxiety. The effects of positive childhood experiences varied: parental warmth was the strongest protective factor against later depression and anxiety; father involvement, positive peer relationships, and school connectedness reduced the risks for later depression and anxiety; neighborhood collective efficacy protected adolescents against depression.
- To investigate the longitudinal associations of childhood experiences and adolescent mental health.
- To identify the risk factors for adolescent depression and anxiety.
- To identify the protective factorsfor adolescent depression and anxiety.
Subject Codes: abuse/neglect, anxiety, depression
Population Codes: adolescence, early childhood, People of Color
Method and Approach Codes: longitudinal modeling, regression: logistic (binary, ordinal, or multinomial),
121-06 FH: Can Strong Marital Relationships Reduce the Risks Associated With Maltreatment Exposure in Childhood?
Maria Ramos-Olazagasti, Dana Thomson, Tracy Gebhart
Childhood maltreatment can have effects that carry on to the next generation. Using data from the Supporting Healthy Marriage evaluation, this study looks at mothers’ and fathers’ exposure to maltreatment in childhood, and how their maltreatment histories relate to their offspring’s externalizing behaviors through their own parenting and mental health. Importantly, we examine whether marital quality and co-parenting can mitigate any identified risks for children associated with a parental history of maltreatment. Preliminary analyses show that maltreatment history is common among mothers and fathers, and that it is related to their children’s externalizing behaviors. Analyses testing whether marital quality and co-parenting can mitigate these risks, and whether protection occurs through parenting and parents’ mental health are underway. Findings will address gaps in the literature on resilience in the face of maltreatment and inform prevention and intervention efforts by helping identify levers for change among couples with maltreatment histories.
- To examine the intergenerational effect of childhood maltreatment on offspring’s outcomes from mothers’ and fathers’ perspective.
- To identify couple-level protective factors that can mitigate the effect of parents’ exposure to maltreatment in childhood on their offspring’s outcomes.
- To identify potential mechanisms through which strong marital relationships can buffer the negative risks associated with parents’ exposure to maltreatment in childhood on their children’s outcomes.
Subject Codes: abuse/neglect, protective factors, family processes
Population Codes: couples/coupled, low income, inclusive of minor children
Method and Approach Codes: longitudinal research, structural equation modeling (SEM), secondary data analysis
121-07 FH: Social Emotional Development as a Resilience Factor For Maltreated Children With Adverse Childhood Experiences
Jennifer Rose, Monica Martin, Elizabeth Trejos-Castillo, Ann Mastergeorge
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are known to be associated with negative developmental trajectories, however more research is needed on specific resilience factors that could buffer negative familial processes. Using the Family Stress Model (FSM), the current study uses a longitudinal structural equation model (SEM) to analyze the impact of child social emotional development on pathways between familial stress processes and child outcomes. Data came from the National Survey on Child and Adolescent Well-being II (NSCAW II), and 1363 children ages two to 18 months at wave one were included in the current study. Results of the SEM were overall consistent with the FSM, with family stress processes predicting ACEs, and ACEs predicting negative child outcomes. Social emotional development moderated the association between caregiver harsh parenting and ACEs. Prevention and intervention efforts focused on child social emotional development may improve child developmental outcomes by mitigating risk associated with family stress.
- To evaluate the FSM in a sample of at risk young children and their caregivers.
- To analyze child social development as a resilience factor across familial stress pathways.
- To explicate the impact of longitudinal familial stress processes on adverse childhood experiences in young children.
Subject Codes: abuse/neglect, family processes, resilience
Population Codes: low income, early childhood, multi-parent or caregivers family (more than two)
Method and Approach Codes: longitudinal modeling, structural equation modeling (SEM), resilience
121-09 EE: School Engagement of Children in Out-of-Home Placement
Ashley L. Landers, Kasey Reichard, Jennifer Bellamy
This study enhances the understanding of children (ages 4-15) involved with child welfare by exploring differences in school engagement for children in out-of-home placement compared to maltreated children who remained in-home. Baseline and 36-month follow-up data from Child Protective Services Sample of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Wellbeing (NSCAW II) were analyzed using propensity score matching. Out-of-home placement did not have a statistically significant effect on emotional, cognitive, or behavioral school engagement at 36-months follow-up. Children who experienced out-of-home placement were at no more risk for lower school engagement, than children who remained in-home. Future research is needed to shed light on the other factors that may account for differences in school engagement among children in out-of-home placement.
- To apply Family Adaptation and Adjustment Response Theory to examine differences in school engagement for children in out-of-home placement in comparison to maltreated children who remained in-home.
- To examine differences in the school engagement of children in out-of-home placement in comparison to maltreated children who remained in-home.
- To demonstrate the comparable risk for lower school engagement among children who experienced out-of-home placement compared to maltreated children who remained in-home.
Subject Codes: abuse/neglect, education, adversity
Population Codes: substance use/abuse, K-12, Nationally representative
Method and Approach Codes: quantitative methodology, secondary data analysis, research, general
121-10 FH: The Role of Childhood Adversity and Protective Factors For Parenting Stress in New Mothers
Ashley Quigley, Lucia Ciciolla, Karina Shreffler
Research suggests that mothers who experience parenting stress with their infants are more at risk for negative outcomes and early life adversity can place mothers at an even greater risk. However, emerging research may suggest that positive childhood experiences may protect against the effects of adversity and the risks associated with it. To better understand this possible protective factor, the current study examined whether positive childhood experiences moderated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and parenting stress with new mothers. Findings suggest that moderate to high levels of positive experiences was protective, but only to a particular point. These findings have implications for clinicians and researchers to recognize that mothers with high adverse experiences and/or low positive experiences may need additional support and intervention to address parenting stress.
- To analyze the impact of ACEs and PACEs on new mothers.
- To demonstrate the help that new mothers need.
- To demonstrate how adverse and positive childhood experiences impact later parenting stress.
Subject Codes: stress, protective factors, risk factors
Population Codes: low income, diverse but not representative, prenatal or infants
Method and Approach Codes: regression: linear (simple, multiple, hierarchical)